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What are the characteristics of automotive engines?

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-09-22      Origin: Site

The automotive engine has made great contributions to the development of human society for hundreds of years since its birth. Next, let us have an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of automotive engines.


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Working principles

Structural features

 

Working principles

Intake process

The crankshaft of the automotive engine rotates and the piston moves from the top dead center to the bottom dead center. At this time, the intake valve is opened. Due to the downward movement of the piston, the volume above the piston increases, generating vacuum suction. The fuel and air are atomized and mixed by the carburetor to form a combustible mixture, which is sucked into the cylinder through the intake valve. After the piston of the automotive engine reaches the bottom dead center, the intake valve is closed and the intake stroke ends.


Compression stroke

At the end of the intake stroke, the intake and exhaust valves of the automotive engine are closed. The piston of the automotive engine moves from the bottom dead center to the top dead center, so that the combustible mixture entering the cylinder is compressed. When the piston reaches the top dead center, the pressure of the mixture increases, and the temperature rises, creating work for the combustion of the mixture. good conditions. This stroke ends when the piston reaches the top dead center.


Work stroke

When the compression stroke piston approaches the top dead center, an electric spark is generated between the spark plug electrodes to ignite the compressed combustible mixture, and the combusted gas expands rapidly. Under the action of the high-pressure gas, the piston of the automotive engine is forced to move from the top dead center to the top dead center. The bottom dead center movement, through the connecting rod, transmits the thrust of the high-pressure gas to the crankshaft to make it rotate and perform work, to realize the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy.


Exhaust stroke

At the end of the work stroke, when the piston is pushed close to the bottom dead center, the exhaust valve opens and the piston moves from bottom dead center to top dead center. The exhaust gas after combustion in the cylinder is pushed out of the cylinder through the exhaust valve under the push of the piston. After the automotive engine piston reaches the top dead center, the exhaust valve is closed, and this stroke ends.


Structural features

The automotive engine is composed of two major mechanisms: crank connecting rod mechanism and valve mechanism, as well as five major systems including cooling, lubrication, ignition, fuel supply, and starting system. The reciprocating piston in the cylinder is hinged with one end of the connecting rod through a piston pin, and the other end of the connecting rod is connected with a crankshaft. The crankshaft is supported by a bearing on the cylinder block and can rotate in the bearing to form a crank connecting rod mechanism. When the piston of the automotive engine reciprocates in the cylinder, the connecting rod pushes the crankshaft to rotate. Through the opening and closing of the intake and exhaust valves, charging into the cylinder and exhausting to the outside of the cylinder are realized. The opening and closing of the intake and exhaust valves are driven by the camshaft. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through a toothed belt or gear.


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